where were gliders used during ww2

Business First Steps, Phone Directory Learn how aviation and spaceflight transformed the world. The goal was to support the 4th Infantry Division during their amphibious landings at Utah Beach by capturing four causeways leading inland. A tow plane such as the Douglas C-47 could haul the Waco at 150 mph and a skilled pilot could stop the glider in a few hundred feet, depending on the load carried and the ground conditions. Please ensure your details are valid and try again. Today this is called ‘vertical envelopment’ and another technology, introduced in the last months of the war, became the ultimate instrument of vertical envelopment: the helicopter. Sorry, there was a problem. U.S. and British doctrine made assault glider operations an integral part of the paratroop  infantry, but the glider infantry did not wear parachutes. This photo here is of a British Halifax bomber towing a Hamilcar glider in the air, one of the largest gliders in service in World War II. What were gliders? in British usage) was a type of airborne infantry in which soldiers and their equipment were inserted into enemy-controlled territory via military glider.Initially developed in the late 1930s by Germany, glider infantry units were used extensively during World War II but are no longer used by any modern military. Americans continued to manufacture, assemble and fly gliders until the end of the war in May, 1945. Even after stateside training increased, there was still a shortage of volunteers to train as glider pilots and in Europe, Army leaders had to order pilots from fighter and bomber units to join the glider forces. Built to be disposable and for one way missions, the glider’s outer body and wings were made of plywood covered with fabric and the infrastructure was aluminum framing for some larger models which added strength and stability to carry heavy equipment and military vehicles. Photographs 2. They rode their gliders to the ground and into battle. See more ideas about gliders, airborne, wwii. The glider was designed to land intact for use in repeated airborne assaults, but combat operations took their toll and most crash-landed, damaging many beyond repair. Chantilly, VA 20151 Gliders and tow C-47s in England during WWII at Wellford Park Base These great CG4-A glider and tow C-47 photos are donated to the museum by Andy Csordas and taken by his father-in-law, George Rutler, in England at the Wellford Park Base. At the end of the campaign to drive the Japanese out of the Philippines, six CG-4As and a CG-13 glider air assaulted the Camalaniugan Airfield at the northern tip of Luzon Island, Philippines, in June 1945. The gliders landed men and supplies that were used to hack an airstrip out of the jungle large enough for C-47 transports to use. (NASM WF-101419). Corporations Social Media, Built by the Government Information Center In organizing and designing the current display “World War II Through the Lens of William D. Willis,”I discovered the photo documentation of military gliders in the William D. Willis World War II Photographic Collection, one of the permanent collections preserved by the Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs. ! (NARA 342FH-3A-20137-56791-AC). served as a photographic technician with the Army Air Force during the Second World War. Mobile Apps Concentration of force is the essence of military action. GLIDERS USED IN THE. Gliders used in the Southwest Pacific Area SWPA during WW2. Once they were loaded with 36 wounded soldiers, twin-engine transports snatched them off the ground and into the air and towed the two Wacos to a field hospital in France. The weather station continued operating until the end of the war. On February 7, 1946, high winds sent eight old gliders on their last flight. Gliders are towed in the air via larger military airplanes. American army units in the Pacific Theater used gliders, but never in large numbers. Mar 27, 2020 - Explore Mark Montgomery's board "World War II Gliders", followed by 107 people on Pinterest. Several different types and sizes of fighting gliders were built, but only the Waco Aircraft Company finished a prototype glider that could meet all of the Army’s structural and flight test requirements for the workhorse 15-seat type called the CG-4A. E-mail / Text Alerts The Allied forces also used twin-engine transports to snatch up gliders filled with wounded soldiers and fly them back to hospitals. Most WW2 transport planes were converted from bombers (Halifax, He111, Liberator, Wellington) … The defenders shot down 350 glider tow planes and paratroop transports and casualties among the glider and airborne soldiers numbered more than 5,100 killed or wounded. General Westmoreland had this to say about the soldiers in the gliders and the glider pilots, themselves. In training alone, from May 1943 to February 1944, there were 162 injuries and seventeen deaths due to glider accidents. Germany’s surprise attack and swift victory over 650 troops stationed inside Ft. Eben-Emael during World War II on May 10, 1940, showed a new way to do this: landing military gliders filled with infantry in precise locations. In August 1944, the Allies launched Operation Dragoon to liberate the port cities of Toulouse and Marseille in southern France. Gliders were initially used as sport vehicles up until 1932, when they were used meterilogically. The 81st Air Depot Group assembled at least 31 gliders at Eagle Farm airfield in Brisbane during WW2. After flying 450 miles in tow from bases in North Africa, anti-aircraft fire, some of it friendly; haze; clouds; smoke from previous attacks; and fierce winds that whipped up sand and obscured visibility contributed to a military disaster for the glider pilots and their troops. The weather station continued operating until the end of the war. Glider infantry (also referred to as airlanding infantry esp. 703-572-4118. The goal was to land the gliders, without significant damage to the cargo or crew, in open terrain that was close enough to the enemy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_War_II_military_gliders Britain’s primary combat glider, the Airspeed Horsa, shared the American CG-4’s general configuration and service history. The number of trained glider pilots General Arnold required grew from 1,000 to 6,000 by early 1942. Two months later on December 26, 1944 during the Battle of the Bulge, 11 CG-4A gliders landed inside the 101st Airborne Division perimeter around Bastogne, Belgium, to deliver medical staff, gasoline, and artillery ammunition. Seven hundred and fifty infantry soldiers successfully landed on Crete in gliders. During World War II, U.S. companies built 14,612 gliders and the U.S. military trained more than 6,000 pilots to fly them. Because some staff members had not heard of these aircraft and were intrigued to learn more, I was compelled to do more research. The Allies Had Too Few Transport Aircraft. Though most of us think of stealth aircraft coming into use by our military in the late 20th century, the U.S. Army Air Force used gliders during World War II to silently land and surprise the enemy. Other German troops aboard another 30 DFS 230 gliders attacked three bridges vital to the invasion of Belgium and France. Related Topics:  Dr. Carolyn Apple, Exhibit, WWII, Delaware's Governor The strategic objective, securing a Rhine River crossing, and perhaps finishing the war by December 1944, failed. The first results resembled sporting sailplanes that did not fly like assault gliders. Delaware State Code On D-Day, Douglas C-47 Troop carrying planes of the 9th AF, towing gliders loaded with airborne infantry are on the way to the French coast to participate in the initial assault behind enemy lines. Due to limited numbers of transport aircraft, the British … The gliders carried men of the First Air Landing Brigade and they landed in the sea and more than 250 drowned. Apollo 11 was a global event. Thousands of landing craft were used to transport men and equipment across the English Channel on D-Day.… Mr. Willis of Dover, Del. Add his or her name to the Museum’s Wall of Honor. Hitler was anxious to gain maximum … The German's effective use of gliders beginning in 1940, caused the Allies to see the value of a glider program to deliver their men and equipment behind enemy lines. The gliders would often be destroyed during landing. The first gliders used in combat were simply a by-product of the fragile, sports sailplane used in the decades preceding the second war. During the Second World War, however, gliders were used by both the Germans and Allies to deliver soldiers and equipment to the battlefield. It began September 17, 1944, and ended on September 25. Weather & Travel, Contact Us The first large Allied airborne assault with gliders and paratroops was during the Sicily Campaign in July 1943. These gliders were the CG-4A glider, designed by the Waco Aircraft Company of Troy, Ohio, USA for the US Army Air Corps. C-47, also called Dakota or Skytrain, U.S. military transport aircraft that served in all theatres during World War II and continued in service long afterward. They were lightweight engineless aircraft that were used to transport a group of 13 to 28 infantry troops and heavy equipment into enemy controlled areas without detection. Like all Army Air Corps pilots, the glidermen wore wings on their chests. To support Gen. Bernard Montgomery’s army as it crossed the Rhine, more than 21,000 glider infantry and paratroopers landed on the German side of the river in one day to engage German forces that might impede the army’s crossing. 655 Jefferson Drive, SW The Allies used fighting gliders to land infantry, arms, and supplies during the Invasion of Normandy, France, in June 1944. The images in this display were selected from the William D. Willis World War II Photographic Collection, one of the permanent collections preserved by the Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs. Meeting these objectives also depended on timely resupply drops from the air. Military planners around the world took note of Germany’s tactics that day. The British army defenders on the island exacted a heavy toll on the 13,000 attacking German airborne troops. The fighting gliders showed military planners the potential advantages of filling special-purpose aircraft with troops and equipment and landing them behind enemy frontlines. British WW2 Gliders British WW2 Gliders: Airspeed Horsa. DURING WWII. The U.S. Army and the U.S. Marine Corps started programs to design and build assault gliders and train and equip crews to fly them. Some gliders carried three mules plus a soldier ordered to shoot the first mule that broke loose inside the glider. In October 1944, four gliders landed in Hidden Valley, New Guinea, to set up a weather station and emergency airstrip in the Owen Stanley Mountains. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). Thank you. The Allies lost more men and gliders during Varsity than any other wartime airborne operation, in part because landings were attempted in broad daylight, which made the gliders easy targets for German anti-aircraft batteries. In one of three main phases of the campaign, 36 of 68 gliders that were launched failed to reach their LZ but overall, the operation succeeded in moving more than 9,000 Chindit fighters 165 miles behind Japanese lines. A combination of mechanical problems with tow planes or the gliders and the unpredictable weather foiled planners who often scheduled the gliders to land at different times and in different LZs. Russell Lee is a curator in the Aeronautics Department and responsible for the glider collection. Caption: On 'D-Day' Douglas C-47 Troop carrying planes of the 9th AF, towing gliders loaded with airborne infantry are on the way to the French coast to participate in the initial assault behind enemy lines. In March 1945, two gliders landed inside the Allied bridgehead on the German side of the Rhine River at Remagen, Germany. Gross Receipts Tax All glider pilots were awarded the Air Medal for each combat flight they made. Six hundred and ten C-47 transports towed 906 Waco gliders (some transports towed more than 1 glider). General Assembly Visit us in Washington, DC and Chantilly, VA to explore hundreds of the world’s most significant objects in aviation and space history. Waco CG-4A glider on the ground, probably at Wright Field, Ohio, October 12, 1942. 202-633-2214, 14390 Air and Space Museum Parkway The entire armada of airborne forces, including British units and aircraft, stretched 200 miles. Their place in the evolution of warfare is nevertheless quite important. You have successfully signed up for our newsletter. "They were the only aviators during World War II … It was used to haul cargo, transport troops, drop paratroops, tow gliders, and as a flying ambulance. As many countries dreamed of the possibilities of transforming the sailplane into a weapon of war, it was Germany and the Soviet Union who took the first Though most of us think of stealth aircraft coming into use by our military in the late 20th century, the U.S. Army Air Force used gliders during World War II to silently land and surprise the enemy. Privacy Policy Only twenty minutes after landing the force had neutralized the fortress at a cost of six dead and twenty wounded. The British Horsa glider was almost entirely made of plywood. Waco CG-4. They were then cut loose and made an attempt to land behind enemy lines. The gliders landed men and supplies that were used to hack an airstrip out of the jungle large enough for C-47 transports to use. Recognize your favorite air or space enthusiast. ©MMXX Delaware.gov, First State Heritage Park Welcome Center & Galleries, Other Historic Sites Owned by the State of Delaware, Cultural and Historical Resources Information System (CHRIS), Education Activities & Learning Opportunities, Delaware Historic Preservation Tax Credit Program. Army planners, training staff, and glider manufacturers could hardly keep up. Lacking enough time to think through the training requirements to accurately simulate the performance characteristics of an assault glider, the Army contracted with established sailplane manufacturers to build trainers for glider pilots and copilots. Missions Galveston and Hackensack on D-Day + 1 involved 152 CG-4A gliders and 48 Horsas. Despite effective anti-aircraft fire and the difficulty that some tow planes had reaching the correct drop points, the air assault achieved most of its objectives. Without engines, the gliders had little ability to change course to avoid obstacles or harsh terrain. The British glider program was started in 1940 and the American program started in February of 1941, with the United States having about 197 gliders and less than 365 glider pilots by the middle of 1941, while Germany at the time had 300,000 glider pilots.1 This large nu… Some claimed that their factories were too small while others thought the whole idea untested and too risky. See more ideas about gliders, world war ii, world war. Did you know that the United States military used stealth aircraft during World War II? The Germans were first to recognize the potential of gliders in the war, in large part because of extensive pre–World War II scientific research and sporting use. Proven U.S. manufacturers of airplanes that were not already fulfilling government contracts for military aircraft were reluctant to get involved. The Germans embraced gliding because it did not violate military prohibitions in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. “…the combat glider, the only aircraft built to crash.”. 81ST AIR DEPOT GROUP ASSEMBLE GLIDERS AT EAGLE FARM AIRFIELD DURING WW2 . The army accepted 3,590 L-5s from 1942 to 1945 and used the type extensively during the Korean War as well. Also like the CG-4, it had a hinged nose to … The glider had never flown in combat before World War II. World War 2 Planes: Gliders. The efforts to create a new military organization, equip it with new technology, and train operators and maintainers amounted to a wartime emergency that was troubled from the start. Frankfort TG-1A training glider at the National Air and Space Museum’s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. Atterbury Army Air Field was also used for practice take off and landing by C-47 and C-46 transports. Locations Directory This listing includes transport, developmental and assault type gliders used in … Delaware Courts Public Meetings Personal Income Tax Voting & Elections Very few mules misbehaved. These special aircraft were airlifted by the use of a cable connection to military transport planes such as the C-47 Skytrain or Dakota, or sometimes by bomber planes that were not assigned to a bombing mission, and then released near the designated enemy target. The glider-borne German paratroops neutralized the ‘impregnable’ Ft. Eben-Emael in about 20 minutes. Today gliders are a recreational pursuit and you can even watch in awe as aerobatic gliders stun the crowds at air shows. Fifty more gliders arrived the next day. Don’t miss our fast-paced webcasts designed to engage students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math in 30 minutes. See our COVID-19 message. That day, 78 troops (and their equipment) boarded 11 DFS 230 assault gliders, which were towed by 11 German Ju 52 transports to a point 8,500 feet over Aachen, Germany, where the gliders released and coasted silently for 20 or so miles across a sliver of Holland before sliding to a landing inside the fort’s walls. (NARA 342FH-3A-17429-51600-AC). Missions Detroit and Elmira took place on D-Day using 88 Waco CG-4A gliders along with76 Horsa gliders. The first to go into action and the one that saw more combat than any other was the 82nd Airborne Division, the All American’s. Cities & Towns National Archives and Records Administration, 342FH-3A-17429-51600-AC. The first glider contingent arrived by convoy in the Southwest Pacific Area in February 1943, comprising 35 pilots and 35 mechanics. The vital lesson of Crete was that coordinating large formations of tow planes and gliders to arrive at their landing zones (LZ) on time was nearly impossible. Their first application in combat was in 1940 at Fort Eben Emael. Examples of the Waco CG-4A glider and the C-47 Skytrain are on display at the Air Mobility Command Museum in Dover, Del. In February 1941, based on information about the capture of Ft. Eben-Emael, U.S. Army Air Forces Commanding General Hap Arnold ordered the development of an assault glider to carry 15 troops. Composed of the 505th and 504th Parachute Infantry Regiments and the 325th Glider Infantry, the 82nd’s entry into combat during George was with the 77th … As many as 500 paratroops took part in the surprise attack, using up to 50 ten-seat DFS 230 gliders. Gliders were used in WWII to deploy Allied troops behind enemy lines. The gliders were able to carry 15 personnel. Bad weather and a cascading series of other delays allowed the Germans to hold key bridges at Arnhem and ultimately cut off the British ground force before it could get close enough to help. Marine glider pilot training started in November 1941 but the Marine Corps terminated the glider program in June 1943. Parachute troops were dropped, 24 March 1945, in advance of the Rhine crossing ground troops. SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA. Aug 29, 2013 - Explore Silent Wings WWII's board "Horsa" on Pinterest. Washington, DC 20560 The lunar module represents one of humanity’s greatest achievements: landing people on another heavenly body. To help supply Brig. They had no engineers and were made with steel tubing, wood, and wrapped in canvas. The US 82nd airborne flew four separate glider operations during the assault on Normandy. Division’s museums now open for self-guided tours by appointment More Info. Nazi Germany successfully used gliders for a number of airborne operations well … The Waco could haul several different cargoes in addition to the pilot and copilot: 13 infantry soldiers and their gear; a jeep and four passengers; or a 75mm howitzer cannon and 18 rounds of ammunition plus three passengers. The Germans were the first to use gliders in warfare, most famously during the assault of the Eben Emael fortress and the capture of the bridges over the Albert Canal at Veldwezelt, Vroenhoven and Kanne on May 10, 1940 in which 41 DFS 230 gliders carrying 10 soldiers each were launched behind Junkers Ju 52s. Unfortunately, glider pilots were killed at a higher rate during both training and assigned missions. Flag images indicative of country of origin and not necessarily the primary operator. Dr. Carolyn Apple was a retired Dover-area emergency medicine physician and Delaware Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs volunteer. Many of these gliders were lost in the invasion of Holland. It became known as the “graveyard of the Germany airborne” division. State Regulations Find out what we’re discovering. American glider pilots fought and gave their all in the European, Pacific, and China - Burma - India Theaters during World War II. Delaware Topics Today, gliders are no longer used in military service except by the U.S. Air Force for training purposes. Delaware Marketplace Gliders were also central to Allied invasions of Sicily, Burma, Southern France, Bastogne, and the crossing of the Rhine into Germany in March 1945. The glider and airborne troops had to fly 300 miles from bases in England to landing zones (LZs) 64 miles behind German lines and near the towns of Eindhoven and Nijmegen in the Netherlands. But they weren’t the first gliders used during the war, according to Donald Abbe, curator of the Silent Wings Museum in Lubbock, Texas. It is hard to imagine how pilots managed to guide these aircraft. Many more men would die when their gliders cracked up … Heavy fog made it difficult to land some gliders, but losses overall were light compared to the next airborne operation to use gliders a month later, Operation Market-Garden. What did that historic mission mean to you? Tax Center The production model weighed 3,900 pounds empty and could fly at an emergency weight of 9,000 pounds. In October 1944, four gliders landed in Hidden Valley, New Guinea, to set up a weather station and emergency airstrip in the Owen Stanley Mountains. Like the U.S. Waco, the Horsa was first flown in 1941. The glider and airborne soldiers had been set on a rigid schedule to capture and hold nine vital bridges that would allow British ground forces approaching from the south to reinforce them. Initially, the glider pilots succeeded in landing in or near the planned LZs, but German forces in the area were considerably larger and better equipped than expected. It did not go well. A good example of this misguided design approach is the Museum’s Frankfort TG-1A, designed by Stan Corcoran and restored by Lewiston University in Illinois, and now displayed at our Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Virginia. The first glider operation on D-day was the capture of bridges at the Orne River and Caen Canal. As well as the excellent answers given by others, it should be pointed out that gliders were not just used for airborne assaults, they could be used for transport behind the lines. The Marines’ first test flights of the XLRQ-1 amphibious assault glider using a Consolidated PBY Catalina flying boat and a Grumman J2F Duck amphibian happened in October 1942. On May 10, 1940, commandos crash landed on the roof of the seemingly impregnable Fort Eben Emael in Belgium. As a public health precaution, the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center and the Museum in DC are temporarily closed. The U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy ran their own independent glider programs. The American glider program became defunct soon after the end of World War II but it is interesting to mention that the United States produced 14,612 gliders of all types and trained over 6,000 glider pilots between 1941 and 1945. It is regrettable that Allied military planners did not better heed the costly results of Germany’s May 1941 assault on Crete. This thing could carry anti-tank guns, vehicles, and even dedicated tanks! Gen. Ord Wingate’s irregular force of Chindit special operations units in their campaign to battle the Japanese army in Burma and reopen the Burma Road linking India and China, President Roosevelt ordered General Arnold to form a small air force called the 1st Air Commando Group. Ten gliders landed on the grassed roof of the fortress. The Marine Corps ordered “air troops” to form in October 1940 and began to consider how to use gliders in combat after the German airborne invasion of the Mediterranean island of Crete in May 1941. An additional 52 pilots and mechanics, equally divided, joined the first detachment in April 1943. They were towed behind planes until they were within distance of their landing zone. Were it not for the courage and skill of the British and American glider pilots on D-Day, the Battle of Normandy may have taken a different turn. Share your story and read what others have to say. Allied gliders dot the German landscape behind the German front lines on the Rhine. Arnold selected Col. Philip C. Cochran to command the unit. In organizing and designing the current display “World War II Through the Lens of William D. Willis,”I discovered the photo documentation of military gliders in the William D. Willis World War II Photographic Collection, … Gen. Omar Bradley planned to drop paratroops and fighting gliders carrying infantry and equipment about 6-10 miles behind the German lines east of Utah Beach beginning the night of June 5. Operation Varsity, which took place on March 24, 1945, was the largest airborne operation ever conducted in one day. State Agencies i need to know wht battle and where they were used please!!!! Glider training continued after V-J Day during 1945. Here are some other fascinating facts about the glider war. Eventually Sicily fell to the Allies but casualties numbered more than 20,000. It took incredible skill and much courage to fly a military glider. The gliders were all retired to the salvage section of the field when caught by the wind. Starting in March 1944, Waco CG-4A gliders landed troops, ammunition, medical supplies, and even mules to supply Wingate’s troops deep in the jungle. Nonetheless, the initial assault with gliders was successful. Help Center Germany was the first to use gliders in combat. There are a total of [ 7 ] WW2 Glider Aircraft (1939-1945) entries in the Military Factory. Elected Officials The United States Army activated five full Airborne Divisions during WWII. State Employees Our scientists are involved in current research focused on the Martian climate and geology. With five airborne divisions, the U.S. Army needed large quantities of glider aircraft amongst its World War 2 planes in addition to … Franchise Tax Withholding Tax B ritish gliders in Operation Neptune In one tragic incident, American and British tow planes released 65 fighting gliders too early. Transparency The 16 U.S. companies contracted to build gliders completed a total of 13,909 Waco CG-4As before World War II ended. Paratroops still jump today from airplanes into battle, but the fighting gliders never saw combat again after the war ended. In alphanumeric order ( 1-to-Z ) some staff members had not heard of these aircraft and were intrigued learn! 655 Jefferson Drive, SW Washington, DC 20560 202-633-2214, 14390 Air and Space Museum Chantilly. 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Assemble gliders at EAGLE FARM AIRFIELD in Brisbane during WW2 were killed at a higher rate during training... Empty and could fly at an emergency weight of 9,000 pounds Marseille southern! Airborne assault with gliders and the glider infantry ( also referred to as airlanding infantry esp then loose... Planners around the World took note of Germany ’ s general configuration and service history June 1944 their. The Allies used fighting gliders too early module represents one of humanity ’ s primary combat glider the. Strategic objective, securing a Rhine River crossing, and ended on September 25, in June 1944 about! Belgium and France planners did not fly like assault gliders and try again rode their gliders cracked up … Allies... + 1 involved 152 CG-4A gliders along with76 Horsa gliders Marseille in southern France Transport troops, drop,... 13,000 attacking German airborne troops depended on timely resupply drops from the Air via larger military airplanes August. Of country of origin and not necessarily the primary operator arrived by convoy in the Theater... Had never flown in combat were simply a by-product of the first to use gliders in combat were simply by-product... The Horsa was first flown in 1941 24 March 1945, in June 1943 the 81ST Air DEPOT GROUP at... Part of the war by December 1944, the Airspeed Horsa, shared American. Released 65 fighting gliders showed military planners around the World took note of Germany s... Wwii to deploy Allied troops behind enemy frontlines the Rhine finishing the ended. Don ’ t miss our fast-paced webcasts designed to engage students in Science, Technology Engineering! Department and responsible for the glider had never flown in combat was in 1940 Fort!, Engineering, and as a photographic technician with the Army accepted 3,590 L-5s from 1942 to 1945 used. Chantilly, VA 20151 703-572-4118 + 1 involved 152 CG-4A gliders along with76 Horsa gliders in July.! As sport vehicles up until 1932, when they were used meterilogically and read what others to... And 35 mechanics island exacted a heavy toll on the island exacted a heavy toll on Martian... Defenders on the ground, probably at Wright field, Ohio, October 12, 1942 responsible for the had. Used fighting gliders showed military planners the potential advantages of filling special-purpose with...

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